12. PubChem – PubChem is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, a component of the National Library of Medicine, PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface. Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be downloaded via FTP. PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds, more than 80 database vendors contribute to the growing PubChem database. PubChem consists of three dynamically growing primary databases, as of 28 January 2016, Compounds, million entries, contains pure and characterized chemical compounds. Substances,198 million entries, contains also mixtures, extracts, complexes, bioAssay, bioactivity results from million high-throughput screening programs with several million values. PubChem contains its own online molecule editor with SMILES/SMARTS and InChI support that allows the import and export of all common chemical file formats to search for structures and fragments. In the text search form the database fields can be searched by adding the name in square brackets to the search term. A numeric range is represented by two separated by a colon. The search terms and field names are case-insensitive, parentheses and the logical operators AND, OR, and NOT can be used. AND is assumed if no operator is used, example,0,5000,50,10 -5,5 PubChem was released in 2004. The American Chemical Society has raised concerns about the publicly supported PubChem database and they have a strong interest in the issue since the Chemical Abstracts Service generates a large percentage of the societys revenue. To advocate their position against the PubChem database, ACS has actively lobbied the US Congress, soon after PubChems creation, the American Chemical Society lobbied U. S. Congress to restrict the operation of PubChem, which they asserted competes with their Chemical Abstracts Service
One of the most visited monuments of Prague is Loreta, originally a place of pilgrimage built in the first half of the 17th century. It was created around the so-called Santa Casa founded by Benigna Lobkowicz based on the famous Santa Casa in Loreto, Italy.
This rectangular house was gradually surrounded by arcades, to which chapels was being added. In the place of the main chapel, Christoph and Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer later built the church of the Nativity of Our Lord. At the same time, a new facade in the style of High Baroque, adjacent to the early Baroque tower, was also built. The tower houses one of the most famous Prague attractions - the carillon, formed by 27 bells, plays a Marian song "A thousand times we greet thee" every hour. The carillon mechanism works on the principle of a metal cylinder. Loreta attracts tourists also by its renowned treasury with the collection of precious liturgical objects dominated by a diamond monstrance adorned by 6 500 diamonds.