Oxymetholone toxicity

Laws and Penalties:  Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).  Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth.  The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal.  Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense.  The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense.  If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double.  While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS.  State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).

In clinical studies, cyproterone was found to be far less potent and effective as an antiandrogen relative to CPA, likely in significant part due to its lack of concomitant antigonadotropic action. [3] Cyproterone was studied as a treatment for precocious puberty by Bierich (1970, 1971), but no significant improvement was observed. [18] In men, 100 mg/day cyproterone proved to be rather ineffective in treating acne , which was hypothesized to be related to its progonadotropic effects in males and counteraction of its antiandrogen activity. [3] [19] In women however, in whom the drug has no progonadotropic activity, 100–200 mg/day oral cyproterone was effective in reducing sebum production in all patients as early as 2–4 weeks following the start of treatment. [3] In contrast, topical cyproterone was far less effective and barely outperformed placebo . [3] In addition, another study showed disappointing results with 100 mg/day cyproterone for reducing sebum production in women with hyperandrogenism . [3] Similarly, the drug showed disappointing results in the treatment of hirsutism , with a distinct hair reduction occurring in only a limited percentage of cases. [3] In the same study, the reduction of acne was better, but clearly inferior to that produced by CPA, and only the improvement in seborrhea was regarded as satisfactory. [3] The addition of an oral contraceptive to cyproterone resulted in a somewhat better improvement in acne and seborrhea relative to cyproterone alone. [3] According to Jacobs (1979), “[cyproterone] proved to be without clinical value for reasons that cannot be discussed here.” [20] In any case, cyproterone has been well-tolerated by patients in dosages of up to 300 mg/day. [3]

Looking at the list below can tell you whether or not something may increase your risk of cancer, but it is important to try to get an idea of how much it might increase your risk. It is also important to know what your risk is to begin with. Many factors can enter into this, including your age, gender, family history, and lifestyle factors (tobacco and alcohol use, weight, diet, physical activity level, etc.). As noted above, the type and extent of exposure to a substance may also play a role. You should consider the actual amount of increased risk when deciding if you should limit or avoid an exposure.

Oxymetholone toxicity

oxymetholone toxicity


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